Networking is hard. Dealing with ISP modem settings is even harder. Mine doesn’t have a static public IP address by default. If the modem reboots, it is likely that it will be assigned a new one. For regular people, it is not a problem for browsing the Internet. But for hackers like us, that means we cannot use the IP address itself to reach the private network from the outside world. It becomes a problem when we try to join hosts in different networks.
For your information, this is the price my ISP would like me to pay for this “option”:
This is insane!
The first idea was to deploy a script on each host that discover the public IP address and register an A record on a given subdomain name. This job could have been run by a cron daemon. It would transform a dynamic IP address into a predictable name. It was like the no-ip service. It worked. I was able to know the home public IP address.
Then, I started to use port mapping to redirect a given port on my router to a host in the private network. By default, some protocols like SSH, HTTP and HTTPS are not open, even if you configure port mapping correctly. You have to go on the ISP website and lower your security level from high to low. At my apartment, I successfully managed to reach some port from the outside, but never on my current house. The major problem of this procedure is its complexity and the fact it highly depends on your ISP devices/settings. I had to find a simpler solution.
Here comes OpenVPN. It’s an open-source software which creates private networks on public networks. It uses encryption to secure connection between each host to keep your transport safe. The initial setup is quite long and complex but you just have to follow this great tutorial and it will work like a charm. The drawback is you’ll need a single point to act as a server. I choose to rent a VPS for a few euros per month. It has a fixed IP address and a decent bandwidth for our usage. It runs on Debian but there are plenty of operating systems available.
The OpenVPN certificate management can be a bit disturbing at first. I use my monitoring host as CA1 to keep trust at home and every host has its own client certificate. I’ve set static IP addressing up to always assign the same address to clients. I’ve enabled direct communication between clients because storage servers will send snapshots to each others. I didn’t configure clients to forward all their packets to the VPN server because the goal here is not to hide behind it for privacy.
I have changed the following settings on the VPN server:
topology subnet ; declare a subnet like home server 10.xx.xx.xx 255.xx.xx.xx ; with the range you like client-to-client ; allow clients to talk to each other client-config-dir /etc/openvpn/ccd ; static IP configuration per client ifconfig-pool-persist /var/log/openvpn/ipp.txt ; IP lease settings
Example of ipp.txt file:
storage1,10.xx.xx.xx storage2,10.yy.yy.yy storage3,10.zz.zz.zz
Example of /etc/openvpn/ccd/storage1.user file:
ifconfig-push 10.xx.xx.xx 255.xx.xx.xx
The network configuration declared in client-config-dir must match the one in ipp.txt.
The configuration generated by the make_config.sh script (see the tutorial mentioned above) can be written to:
When the OpenVPN service is started, you should be able to see the tun interface up and running.
tun0: flags=8051<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500 options=80000<LINKSTATE> inet6 fe80::xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx%tun0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x3 inet 10.xx.xx.xx --> 10.xx.xx.xx netmask 0xffffff00 groups: tun nd6 options=21<PERFORMNUD,AUTO_LINKLOCAL> Opened by PID 962
3: tun0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN group default qlen 100 link/none inet 10.xx.xx.xx/xx brd 10.xx.xx.xx scope global tun0 valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
Et voilà! Every server is now part of a private network:
monitoring ~ # nmap -sn 10.xx.xx.xx/xx Starting Nmap 7.70 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-07-13 17:28 CEST Nmap scan report for vps (10.xx.xx.xx) Host is up (0.018s latency). Nmap scan report for 10.xx.xx.xx Host is up (0.032s latency). Nmap scan report for 10.xx.xx.xx Host is up (0.24s latency). Nmap scan report for 10.xx.xx.xx Host is up (0.22s latency). Nmap scan report for 10.xx.xx.xx Host is up. Nmap done: xx IP addresses (5 hosts up) scanned in 13.11 seconds